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Effects of lithium on Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryonic development 

Effects of lithium on zebrafish embryonic development are described in Stachel et al. (1993)

zebrafish normal development

Effects during the development of the embryonic shield

Exposure to lilthium during an early sensitive embryonic stage disrupts pattern formation in the embryo by causing hyperdorsalization of the embryonic shield, a region that plays an important role in body pattern determination.

The embryonic shield forms at 50% epiboly (side view)

View of control embryo from animal pole showing normal embryonic shield (top of image).

View of lithium treated embryo from animal pole showing radialized embryonic shield.


Effects of lithium exposure on gross phenotype of day-old embryos

Normal day-old control embryo

Day-old lithium-treated embryo showing bustled phenotype

Thanks to Bruce Appel for suggesting the experiment and Jimann Shin for making it happen.