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Illustrated key of Ulmus (elms)

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1.  Twigs usually bearing corky ridges, often a small tree: Ulmus alata (winged elm)

1. Twigs not with corky ridges, may be a large tree with distinctive spreading crown: go to 2






2. Leaves often smooth above, cross-section of bark with alternate layers colored cream and brown, twigs not scabrous (sandpaper-like): go to 3

2. Leaves like sandpaper above, cross-section of bark more uniformly brown, twigs scabrous: Ulmus rubra (slippery elm)






3. Blooming in the spring, nearly indistinguishable from U. serotina without knowing blooming time: Ulmus americana (American elm)

3. Blooming in the fall, restricted range in south central U.S.: Ulmus serotina (September elm)