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Illustrated key of gymnosperms

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1. Leaves scale-like, female cones small, fleshy, and bluish, typically found in limestone soils: Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)

1. Leaves needle-like, female cones large and woody: go to 2






2. Needles twisted and in bundles of two, 4 to 8 cm long, cones egg-shaped with small prickles, usually occurs naturally: Pinus virginiana (Virginia pine)

2. Needles not twisted, typically planted in developed areas: go to 3




3. Needles in bundles of five, 5 to 10 cm long, rows of stomata causes some sides of needles to appear whitish, cones loose with little or no prickle at the end of the scales: Pinus strobus (white pine)

3. Needles in bundles of three or sometimes two, 12 to 25 cm long, cones stout with a sharp prickle at the ends of the scales: Pinus taeda (loblolly pine)